Ethical Principles

The ethical principles of being a physician and the ethical principles of sports, especially the general rules for research in sports, will be accepted. This includes particularly the principles for a doping-free sport according to the current respective versions of the guidelines of the German Olympic Association for Sports (DOSB), the World-Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), and the International Olympic Committee (IOC). All authors assure that they will take care of these principles and accept them. This does not exclude scientific discussions of such guidelines and rules. A main principle of work in Sports Medicine is to observe the rights of patients, athletes, and subjects respectively their parents according to the Declaration of Helsinki, especially the respect of their rights of self-determination, and the free and forceless agreement to participate in scientific examinations.



Conflict of Interest

The authors must provide a statement of disclosure of conflict of interest, e.g. regarding financial relationship or payment in connection with publication in the German Journal of Sports Medicine.

In the submission system “Editorial Manager”, the corresponding author signs before submission a digital form for himself and all corresponding authors, that these principles are accepted.



Human and Animal Research: Rights and Respectives for Human and Animals, Informed Consent

Participation by individuals capable of giving informed consent as subjects in medical research must be voluntary. Although it may be appropriate to consult family members or community leaders, no individual capable of giving informed consent may be enrolled in a research study unless he or she freely agrees. In medical research involving human subjects capable of giving informed consent, each potential subject must be adequately informed about the aims, methods, sources of funding, any possible conflicts of interest, institutional affiliations of the researcher, the anticipated benefits and potential risks of the study and the discomfort it may entail, post-study provisions and any other relevant aspects of the study. The potential subject must be informed about the right to refuse to participate in the study or to withdraw consent to participate at any time without reprisal. Special attention should be given to the specific information needs of individual potential subjects as well as to the methods used to deliver the information. After ensuring that the potential subject has understood the information, the physician or another appropriately qualified individual must then seek the potential subject’s freely-given informed consent, preferably in writing. If the consent cannot be expressed in writing, the non-written consent must be formally documented and witnessed. All medical research subjects should be given the option of being informed about the general outcome and results of the study. Similarly, the ethical principles for the treatment of experimental animals must also be observed as established in the relevant laws.